Cysts are non-cancerous sacs filled with fluid that develop in womenâ€™s ovaries. Cysts are formed when the follicle that contains egg fails to break and release the egg out of the ovary, resulting in accumulation of fluid in the follicle.
Some of risk factors for cyst formation include heredity, early menstruation, irregular menstrual cycles, excessive upper body fat distribution, and hormonal imbalance. If there is more than one cyst present inside the ovary, the condition is called as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Ovarian cysts usually do not cause any symptoms, but you must visit your doctor if you observe swelling or bloating of the abdomen, pain during bowel movements, pelvic pain, severe pain leading to nausea and vomiting, and pain in the pelvis region before or after the menstrual period begins.
Some cysts will disappear by themselves and some cysts that are large will require treatment. Treatment options include non-surgical and surgical treatment. The nonsurgical treatment includes
- Birth control pills help to decrease formation of new cysts and prevent the formation of eggs that will become cysts
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen helps to relieve pain
Surgery will be recommended to remove the cyst or ovary if the medications do not help or cysts that are 5 to 10 cm in diameter. Different types of surgeries to remove the cysts include laparoscopy surgery or laparotomy.
Laparoscopic surgical removal is recommended if the cysts are smaller and noncancerous. During the procedure, a tiny incision is made in the lower abdomen near the navel and an carbon dioxide gas will be administered to enlarge the area as this provides more space for surgery. Then laparoscope will be inserted through the incision, the camera and lens at one end of the laparoscope helps the surgeon to view inside the body. Then one or two more tiny incisions are made around the first incision to insert the surgical instruments. Then the cyst will be removed intact or through suction followed by excision or ablation of the cyst wall.
In case of larger and cancerous cysts, the cysts will be removed along with the surrounding organs such as ovary and uterus through larger incisions and the procedure is called as laparotomy.